Diabetes And Your Oral Health
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which affects the uptake and use of glucose by the human body. As a result, the glucose level in the blood rises beyond normal which has an overall impact on the general health and oral cavity.
Types Of Diabetes
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: It occurs due to deficiency of insulin hormone from the pancreatic cells. As a result, the glucose level in the blood rises which is not taken up by the liver cells.
- Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: It occurs due to resistance to the action of insulin which can be due to various factors including obesity. As a result, glucose is not taken up by the cells to be utilized as fuel by the body.
- Polydipsia: Patient feels thirsty.
- Polyphagia: Patient feels hungry all the time.
- Polyuria: Frequent urination.
For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher chance of getting diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes
Why Dental Care is soo Important?
- There is greater likelihood of increased infections in your teeth and gum as a consequence of high blood sugar
- Bacteria and other microorganisms can grow easily in your mouth. This can lead to severe gum (gingivitis to periodontitis) disease and eventually tooth loss due to bone loss.
- The oral cavity is highly susceptible to fungal infections/oral thrush and also canker sores
- There is decreased rate of recovery with respect to wounds in the oral cavity.
- There can be symptoms of dry mouth or xerostomia from polyuria.
- Loss of taste sensations or alteration in taste from neuropathy.
- Bad breath or Halitosis can be found as well.
What complications can occur in a dental procedure?
- Dry socket from susceptibility to infections and poor healing as a post extraction complication.
- Septicemia or blood infection as these patients have lots of plaque and calculus which are safe haven for bacteria.
- Hypoglycemic shock due to a sudden fall of blood glucose level and patient collapses. It is the most serious complication.
- Hypotension due to a fall in blood pressure which occurs due to autonomous neuropathy among diabetic patients.
What should your dentist check?
We at Zenith Dental Care, are extremely careful and vigilant to diagnose signs and symptoms in oral cavity that are associated with high blood sugar. Therefore it is imperative that a detailed history is taken before a surgical procedure is begun in a diabetic patient.
- Not only history is required but a blood check up, parameters such as HB1Ac, Post prandial sugar, Fasting blood sugar need to be checked.
- Below 70mg/dl of Fasting blood sugar, dental procedures are avoided due to risk of Hypoglycaemic Shock.
- If the patient has well-controlled diabetes, oral hypoglycemic drugs can be stopped for 24 hours prior to extraction or minor surgery. But glucose levels need to be monitored pre and postoperatively for two hours until the patient eats again and medication is to be started again.
- Morning appointments should be given to a diabetic patient
- A diabetic patient is always advised to carry a packet of sugar/glucose with him for a dental procedure
- Strict post operative instructions need to be followed. We encourage regular follow ups to assess the healing sequence after a minor/major surgery and advise immaculate oral hygiene for optimum results and faster healing.
The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this web site is for general information purposes only. Zenith Dental Care, Noida (www.zenithdental.in) makes no representation and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of information contained on or available through this web site, and such information is subject to change without notice.